Unit 12: Week 2

  • Introduction :

To find out about music videos, I am going to look at a range of videos produced by my favourite music artists

  • Choose 3 music videos

 

  1. Leftfield: Afrika Shox

This music video was made in the late 90’s and it is a form of urban gritty Fantasy as a genre. It is electronic song with a mix of cultures of Africa and America. With visual style that resembles the Matrix and the works of J.G. Ballard. It also has some significance to humpty dumpty with a blind character who is incredibly fragile as he is made out of terracotta and can break into little pieces very quickly. It is an imaginative stylish video mixing punk rock with a cyberpunk atmosphere.  There is also an ounce of hip hop culture going on as the character walks through the streets and discovers hip hop dancers in a parking lot. This video was directed by Chris Cunningham and produced by Cindy Burnay and Frank Linkoff

chriscunningham

The Influences of Afrika Shox.

  • The works of JG Ballard
  • The Matrix
  • Humpty Dumpty
  • The world of Cyberpunk

Chris Cunningham is a British Music video film maker who had started off working as a technician in the 1995 film Judge Dredd. He then was hired by filmmaker Stanley Kubrick to design the central character of the film A.I. Artificial Intelligence until it was directed by Steven Spielberg.

The history background Political context of Afrika Shox

Afrika Shox political aspect of the video is that it resembles themes of African slavery in the sense that the protagonist in the video is a broken and blind looking hobo , he is incredibly skinny to the point he resembles a Jew who has only just survived the holocaust.

The electronic music matching the atmosphere is also inspired by some of the novels written by William Gibson. The other political context of the video is that since it is set in an expensive side of a big city where multiple corporations reign supreme and are also non attentive to poor individuals including coloured people. An Example of this would be that in one scene a character bumps into a more smart looking person and accidentally breaks his arm into many pieces since the main character is made out of terracotta.

The video was made in 1999 and in the lyrics of the song, it is said that the past has got to stop and the future has got to rock. And that it is a song representing the end of a century and the begging of the 21st century, in other words the song it is a glamorising commercial theme for the begging of the year 2000, As it said already in the lyrics. In that era of 1999, The Matrix has just came out and it was a decade of roaring swinging growth of punk rock and a massive leap towards creativity. Dance music was turning into Electronic techno music Hip hop was at it’s golden age Quentin Tarantino, Martin Scorsese, Steven Spielberg and James Cameron were the kings of cinema, Friends was on every Thursday nights, there was no IPhones, Facebook and the immense amount of Internet that was being used , Everything was neon in fashion and in design as a new style and it was the beginning of the digital era. All these cult factors represented a decade that was relevant into it’s culture of that time and thus the song Afrika Shox is an electronic piece that is also a semi representation of that era.

  • Analysis

The Clip was one of the first music videos to be put on DVD quality. It was shot in New York City and features actors like Caspert Hunte who plays the protagonist, London Reyes as a Break Dancer, Mitchell Mertinez as another break dancer, Raymond Ramoz as another break dancer and Afrika Bambaataa ( the singer of the song) who plays a car parking attendant.

  • Camera Movement

The Camera movements and visual look of the video is portrayed with a dramatic sinister tone yet the tone of the video has a Sci-Fi quirky tone to the source material. The colours used for this video are mostly dark green and grey whilst balancing between blurry and POV on it’s central character to create this dreamlike feel. Also since it is shot primarily on the protagonist’s point of view the camera is mainly focused on what is going on through his mind. So there some shaky shots that is done of purpose because the central character is going through a very confusing moment in his short life. And every body around are like alien to him. It is highly similar to a film made by Jonathan Glazer called Under the Skin. In which an Alien is walks amongst planet earth and has immense difficulty connecting with humans, it’s like an E.T. for the mature audiences.

woodson_underskin

 

 

2. Coldplay Paradise

This video was directed by Shynola and was made in 2011 staring Chris Martin as a dressed up Elephant searching for his crew mates aka Coldplay dressed in other Elephants. The video was filmed on Location in London, Cape town in the Klein Karoo in the Western Cape and Johannesburg . The video is a semi quirky comedy piece with similarities to cartoon episodes in the reign of the Looney tunes like the road runner and SpongeBob.

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  • Analysis

This video has a large budget, it was shot on multiple locations and some of the shots in the video are quite cinematic. There are shots of Aeroplanes and island during an instrumental of the song. The mood that the atmosphere give changes to a more positive feeling. When the elephant is in the tube station with the flash cards asking for money he’s just standing with the lyrics in his hands, however when he is in the new location, he’s asking for money by dancing and putting on a show for the people showing how much happier it is. The music builds up as the elephant is reunited with the rest of the elephants which the audience can assume that are the rest of the Coldplay band. Showing the Elephant running in slow motion emphasises that he’s in paradise and achieved what he set out to do. When the chorus plays again, the audience can see how the elephant has fit into the rest of the elephants and how happy he is compared to how he was at the beginning of the video.

 

3. Alizée Moi Lolita

 

This video was made in France as it is completely French it was written by French pop star Mylene farmer and the music was composed by Laurent Boutonnat. In which both produced the clip. The video gained wide recognition. The inspiration of Moi Lolita was inspired by Vladmir Nakobov’s novel Lolita. Alizée was meant to represent this seductive Lolita character in order to make ( primarily male) audiences charmed.  The video was made in 2000 and was a major hit in Europe and made a star out of Alizée.

lolita-blog

  • Analysis

The concept was to mix adult hood, childhood innocence and possibly the lost of Innocence. In order to this the atmosphere of the clip had to be as authentic as possible adding natural beauty with colourful flour while giving an exotic vibe to the source material. With one of the quotes of the song My name is Lolita that is the start of the monologue That revolves around egocentrism, as well as the affirmation of the novel itself. Ergo a teen who amuses you with the sole purpose of entertaining herself, she toys with the idea of having an actual sexual relationship but it stays as just an idea.

It has inspiration to other sons like Vanessa Paradis, Mylene Famer, Britney Spears, Blondie and Madonna.

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  • What do I know about myself
  • Your childhood and music you listened as a child ?

When i was a kid i used to listen to movie scores. Including the theme from Robin hood and Disney Pixar movies like the original Toy Story.  But if there was a song that stood out to me till this day when i was around 4 was a song called high by Lighthouse family. I would listen to the themes of Harry Potter, Spider man and others. Rock and all the great artists of that time which were in the late 90’s early 2000’s i wasn’t really aware of and did’t catch my interest until much later on.

  • What was your favorite music and artist you listen to as a child ?

High by Lighthouse family.

  • What was the first CD you had and listen to ?

I don’t really remember the full title but it was something like TV express in which all the songs were from themes of TV in England from the 60’s, 70’s and 80s.

  • Did your parents influenced your taste in music or who did ? What is the story behind ?

They partially did, My dad less so than y Mum.Because he was into John Lennon and David Bowie and still is. Those singers i didn’t thought they were really good.  My mother was into European music but also Pet shop boys and so forth. My interest in music was a more independant approach. It was the songs put in movies that influenced me the most.

  • What was the music you listened to in your early teens and who were your influences?

80’s music like Blondie, Michael Jackson, Billy Ocean, New Order, early 90’s rap like Ice cube.  This was all because of Rockstar games and Grand Theft Auto.

  • What was your favorite music video at the time and why ?

Still is to this day Alizee Moi Lolita. I fall in love with Alizee every time i watch the video because it’s super romantic and sexy.

  • Is there an interesting story or anecdote from your teen time influenced by music you listened to ?

When I was in College in France i was with a group of friends who were deeply inspired by the gangster rap of 50 cent, 2 ac, Eminem etc and we would copy there attitudes and listen consistently their music.

  • Has your taste in music changed now and what kind of music you listen to now ?

I despise commercials songs of today, i have to bear the trash they put on in Clubs. But i search for more older music which i think is better than modern day music experimental, independant, motivational music that i can visualize for a movie sequence. But i like all sorts of genres of music but i don’t really pay attention to the lyrics and make just sure if i like the sound of the song being played.

  • Who are your favorite music artists and why ?

Leftfield because they play electronic music but have a deep atmosphere in each song that feels original unique and dreamy other world like.

  • What does music mean to you and purpose does it serve in your life ?

Music is huge source of inspiration for me to have an idea for movies and stories and sequences. It helps jogg without stopping and think of thinks better and clearer.

  • ReseR

Research topic for report

Music interests me because it is a Grande inspiration for catching ideas. I don’t necessarily focus to much on the lyrics to the song but more on the music and the Rhythm. I like all types of songs especially the ones that have an exotic motivational boost to them occasionally I like uplifting songs but I love cool songs and atmospheric ones too. Example of my preferences is in the vain of something like Depeche mode, Leftfield, New Order, Chrysta Bell, Exotica, Mylene Farmer, Prodigy, Goldfrapp, Julian Winding. Howver I despise the likes of Justin Bieber, Ariana Grande, Chris Brown and other modern day junk in that vain. Aimed for mindless tweeny teenagers.

At this moment I am currently working on a song called My Own Effigy

 

Conclusion.

Music is one of the main influences in my life and for this reason my research topic will be research around music.

Evaluation:

While working on Unit 12, week 2 while researching music videos to understand the craft I found myself interested in discovering how music video directors make music videos and how some them are current A grade filmmakers.  Making a music video is almost exactly like making a feature film. Because is a from of making a story out of the sound of the song is telling us and arguably even more so than the lyrics it tells us.

References :

 

Leftfield ft Afrika Bambaataa – Afrika Shox (2017) YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DQ_J3K9sjRM (Accessed: 18 April 2017).

Langen, Y. and →, V. (2017) July book review – Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov, The Unputdownable Book Club. Available at: https://unputdownablebookclub.com/2013/09/03/august-book-review-lolita-by-vladimir-nabokov/ (Accessed: 18 April 2017).

SpongeBob SquarePants (2017) En.wikipedia.org. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SpongeBob_SquarePants (Accessed: 18 April 2017).

15 Things You Didn’t Know About Wile E. Coyote | GetMovieNews (2017) Getmovienews.com. Available at: https://getmovienews.com/15-things-you-didnt-know-about-wile-e-coyote/ (Accessed: 18 April 2017).

Under the Skin Archives – Home of the Alternative Movie Poster -AMP- (2017) Home of the Alternative Movie Poster -AMP-. Available at: https://alternativemovieposters.com/portfolio_tags/under-the-skin/ (Accessed: 18 April 2017).

Alizee – Moi… Lolita [Me… Lolita] (2017) YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3uhPQZpjFg (Accessed: 19 April 2017).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit 12: Week 2

Week 1-Week 2 : Broadchurch case study

  • Opening scene Analysis

Broadchurch is a British Thriller for TV about a child murder that occurs in a small town. 2 detectives are hired to solve the case, it stars David Tenant and Olivia Colman.

broadchurch-logo

  • Analysis

The first couple of shots of the first 10 minutes contains landscape shots mood atmopheres, dramatic music quickly switching the genre into a lighter mood as the first few scenes go from moody thriller to happy sweet drama. After the first couple of suspensfull and mysterious shots of a boy standing beside a cliff, staring at the sea and shots of the town. The following day we get a positive vibe from the series . We get a look at the everyday routine the town of Broadchurch goes through, where people wake up go to work and kids go to school. We meet a Family in which we see the dad played by Andrew Buchan goes to walk his way to work saying hello to the community of Broadchurch walking past stores buying the newspaper drinking coffee, we get a glimpse of the characters who will be relevant later on in the series. Meanwhile the mother of the family packs snacks for the kids, however one has gone missing. After a few shots of introducing other characters including one of the lead protagonists played by Olivia Colman. We get a sequence on which the mother played by Jodie Whittaker a kids soccer game getting increasingly suspicious over the fact of where her son could be since she hasn’t seen him the entire day.

From this point the atmosphere changes from peaceful  to uncomfortable mood piece. Later on it is discovered that a dead body had been found at the beach. It is then that we discover that the dead victim is the missing son. There is no cloudy weather to build a depressing mood instead the sky is blue making the series even more disturbingly sinister representing a compelling series with bleak outcomes that stands somewhere between Twin Peaks and a French Mini series called Zodiaque…..

Nothing is at seems in the opening sequence of Broadchurch. It is focused primarily on a mood piece rather than shoving an in your face dialogue oriented fast pacing ride. It’s more of a slow burn taking it’s time representing it’s characters

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  • Target audience

The series of Broadchurch is aimed for a widespread audience both conventional and unconventional it’s something to be shown to a much younger audience but definitely a source of pure entertainment even though the subject matter is bleak it’s dazzling and compelling to watch suitable for a mature audience.

  • Social

The World in which Broadchurch is trying to depict is a realistic take of ever day life gone wrong and the emotional outcomes of any single sinister action that takes place.

Their is a message in Broadchurch that is trying to say this can happen to anyone.  The idea of a much more innocent town in comparison to major cities or more well known grittier towns in England makes the story of Broadchurch more sinister because it’s saying that sometimes the lost of innocence is often Ugly to watch.

  • Political

Broadchurch presents itself as a world of innocence and it’s focus on every day life in a British middle class town.  But the sudden shift of child murder and the obssession of the press exposing it on the news.  In a way the political aspect of the series describes the fear of people and the unknown of what they can do to one another.

In the first episode after the murder of a child the obsession of the media becomes grand and begins to intrude in the investigation.

  • Chronological

What has gone before the genre.

In previous genres of Broadchurch which is marked as a dramatic thriller in the vain of a David fincher’s work and other TV series like Gracepoint, endeavor, the fall, Wallander, Lewis, The Bletchley Circle, Marcella, River and others more…

 

The Technology that will affect the production

Broadchurch is not a series in which it’s plot and themes rely on technology.

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Harvard Reference :

3rd-strike.com | Broadchurch: Season 2 (Blu-ray) – Series Review (2017) 3rd-strike.com. Available at: http://3rd-strike.com/broadchurch-season-2-blu-ray-series-review/ (Accessed: 15 March 2017).

Sprogis, K. (2017) Recap of “Broadchurch” Season 1 Episode 1 | Recap Guide, Recapguide.com. Available at: http://recapguide.com/recap/53/Broadchurch/season-1/episode-1/ (Accessed: 15 March 2017).

Season 1 | BBC America (2017) BBC America. Available at: http://www.bbcamerica.com/shows/broadchurch/season-1 (Accessed: 15 March 2017).

GRACEPOINT [FOX] | GeorgeKelley.org (2017) Georgekelley.org. Available at: http://georgekelley.org/gracepoint-fox/ (Accessed: 15 March 2017).

(2017). Available at: GRACEPOINT [FOX] | GeorgeKelley.org (2017) Georgekelley.org. Available at: http://georgekelley.org/gracepoint-fox/ (Accessed: 15 March 2017). (Accessed: 15 March 2017).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Week 1-Week 2 : Broadchurch case study

Unit 12 week 1: Personal music question and answer notes

  • Your childhood and music you listened as a child ?

When i was a kid i used to listen to movie scores. Including the theme from Robin hood and Disney Pixar movies like the original Toy Story.  But if there was a song that stood out to me till this day when i was around 4 was a song called high by Lighthouse family. I would listen to the themes of Harry Potter, Spider man and others. Rock and all the great artists of that time which were in the late 90’s early 2000’s i wasn’t really aware of and did’t catch my interest until much later on.

 

 

 

  • What was your favorite music and artist you listen to as a child ?

High by Lighthouse family.

 

 

 

  • What was the first CD you had and listen to ?

I don’t really remember the full title but it was something like TV express in which all the songs were from themes of TV in England from the 60’s, 70’s and 80s.

 

 

  • Did your parents influenced your taste in music or who did ? What is the story behind ?

They partially did, My dad less so than y Mum.Because he was into John Lennon and David Bowie and still is. Those singers i didn’t thought they were really good.  My mother was into European music but also Pet shop boys and so forth. My interest in music was a more independant approach. It was the songs put in movies that influenced me the most.

 

 

  • What was the music you listened to in your early teens and who were your influences?

 

80’s music like Blondie, Michael Jackson, Billy Ocean, New Order, early 90’s rap like Ice cube.  This was all because of Rockstar games and Grand Theft Auto.

 

  • What was your favorite music video at the time and why ?

Still is to this day Alizee Moi Lolita. I fall in love with Alizee every time i watch the video because it’s super romantic and sexy.

 

 

 

  • Is there an interesting story or anecdote from your teen time influenced by music you listened to ?

When I was in College in France i was with a group of friends who were deeply inspired by the gangster rap of 50 cent, 2 ac, Eminem etc and we would copy there attitudes and listen consistently their music.

 

  • Has your taste in music changed now and what kind of music you listen to now ?

I despise commercials songs of today, i have to bear the trash they put on in Clubs. But i search for more older music which i think is better than modern day music experimental, independant, motivational music that i can visualize for a movie sequence. But i like all sorts of genres of music but i don’t really pay attention to the lyrics and make just sure if i like the sound of the song being played.

 

  • Who are your favorite music artists and why ?

Leftfield because they play electronic music but have a deep atmosphere in each song that feels original unique and dreamy other world like.

 

 

  • What does music mean to you and purpose does it serve in your life ?

Music is huge source of inspiration for me to have an idea for movies and stories and sequences. It helps jogg without stopping and think of thinks better and clearer.

 

 

Conclusion.

Music is one of the main influences in my life and for this reason my research topic will be research around music.

 

 

Unit 12 week 1: Personal music question and answer notes

Week 3: TOPIC SOUND

 

Unit 1 LO 2.2

Unit 4 LO1.2 and LO2,2

PART A

  • Diegetic sound

Diegetic sound  is the sound whose source is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film for example, the voices of characters in motion pictures or the sounds made by objects in the story and music represented as coming from instruments in the story space. Sound whose source is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film. In any cases Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originated from source within the film’s world, it can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever it’s source is within the frame or outside the frame.

  • Non Diegetic sound

Non Diegetic sound is the opposite of Diegetic sound. It is neither visible on the screen or has been implied to be present in the action. For example there is the narrator’s commentary in a motion picture or the sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect and mood music.

But also Non Diegetic sound is represented as coming from a source outside it’s own story space and it’s distinction between diegetic or non diegetic sound depends on the understanding of conventions from film viewing and listening.  Certain sounds are representing as coming from the world of stories, meanwhile others are represented as coming from outside of narrative events. an experiment with diegetic and non diegetic conventions can be used to create mystery, ambiguity and the unknown, a great example of that would be Thrillers and Horrors in order to surprise it’s audience. And in other terms for non diegetic sound is commentary sound.

  • Off screen sound

Off Screen sound is a from of editing trick in which  you have one location whether it’s interior or exterior where in you have a scene in which for example in a house  a child is playing with his toys and the child’s father is watching TV downstairs but instead of hearing the child actually playing with his toys we hear the TV that the father is watching.

  • Voice over

Voice over in Movies, video games, radio or I TV shows. Tend to be a form of narration or a description in the visual story told b one of the main protagonists or from a genuine storyteller explaining mostly the premise or a situation a movie. Like henry Hill in Scorsese’s Goodfellas or The main protagonist in Double indemnity.

  • Thought voice-over

Thought voice over or Interior monologue is the thinking of words during voice over, it’s what is going through the mind of a character through words in a movie.

  • Ambient sound

Ambient sound is the soundtrack going on behind the main characters for example when 2 characters are talking at a café, an example of ambient sound would be what we hear going around the 2 characters talking in the café like the other customers around them or the noise of other people walking in and out. And other examples of Ambient sound would be if a protagonist in a film is chasing down an antagonist in a nightclub the ambient sound would be the techno music playing and the people cheering or shouting.

  • Special sound effects

Special effects in movies are commonly used when a sequence requires a stunt that cannot be done in real life by doing the impossible in movies SFX is used by computer techniques. SFX are illusions or visual tricks they are here to simulate the virtual world in visual storytelling.  But in the case of special sound effects they artificially created or enhanced sounds it is the sound for the visual special effects.

PART B

Investigating the relationship between sound and visual images.

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Europa (1991) Directed by Lars Von Trier

The clip below is the opening sequence of the film.

Europa is a German noir war thriller set at the aftermath of Germany after WW2. About an American trying to bring a sense of kindness as sleeping car  conductor but gets enrolled with a Nazi terrorist conspiracy.

In the opening sequence of the film the sound that is used is ambient sound of a train driving through Railtracks. And a violin score playing. The Voice over isn’t thought voice over. but instead it is a voice guiding the main protagonist to do the mission of the what is yet to come. An example would be like in a video game telling the main player to guide him on his objectives.

The voice over in Europa is a guide and the voice is told by Max Von Sydow.

The camera position in the opening sequence is on extreme close up with the railway tracks. It’s shot in black and white. It’s one long shot and the audio was recorded in different locations the shot was filmed without a microphone and pointed down on while the cameraman was on a moving train. Then recorded either the same tracks or found sound footage of general railway tracks.

Lars Von Trier films tend to use minimal special effects, he is one of the co founders of the dogme 95 movement in which it is all gritty handheld realistic perspectives and environments. So with his scenes they tend to involve close up shots and intense melodrama while the atmosphere is drenched in dread. And his soundtracks for movies contain a lot of classical music. So in the case of Europa, it is one of his most ambitious films to date that resembles Schindler’s list. But the opening sequence is incredibly simple in comparison to what is yet to come in the feature. The voice over is a told with a serious dreamy hypnotic tone in order for the first shot of the film to be immensely hypnotic. This is an influence that Von Trier took from Powell, Tarkovsky and Bergman.

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2) The built of atmosphere

Europa starts off with a very dreamlike tone while recording the sound for the railway tracks Von Trier used and the colour of shadowy black and white to provide the atmospheric quality.

The only narrative device used in the sequence is The voice by Max Von Sydow telling the main character revealed later to relax as he is about to enter the world of Germany at the end of the war and to relax before the film slowly pulls us ( the audience) and the character   this is an atmospheric method to hypnotize the audience.

The rhythm that is provided is slow in pacing and tense in tone it is a setup of an art house film the colour of black and white the dreamy trippy vibe and quality of the shot and the dialogue of voice over is as a form of relaxation exercise is to suck the audience in the film and then slowly building the rest of the film while tense violin plays in the background.

3) The background piece music.

The background music is violin’s bringing a tense mood while the sound of rail tracks deliver a dream like tone in the same time. However with Max Von Sydow’s voice over guide the minute he says I will now count from 1 to 10 , I say 1. The music get’s more intense as it goes along until the voice reaches up to 10 and instead of the music getting more intense it becomes more somewhat melancholic.

And the minute the voice says 10 this is exactly the right moment to slowly cut to the next scene while the music slowly changes tone and instead of hearing railway tracks we hear rain drops.

The Music is a perfect piece of calm tension dreamlike quality slowly building into something maybe sinister that may happen. And suits the visual look because while the music is intense and the railway tracks are dark and grey and the audience is left in an unknown territory except for a voice.

The End.

References :

Movie Posters.2038.net | Posters for movieid-58: Europa (1991) by Lars von Trier (2017) Movieposters.2038.net. Available at: http://movieposters.2038.net/movieid-58 (Accessed: 2 March 2017).

Europa-Trier (2017) YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2usvKfgBjGo (Accessed: 2 March 2017).

Trier, L. (2017) Lars von Trier, IMDb. Available at: http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001885/ (Accessed: 2 March 2017).

 

 

Michael Powell (2017) En.wikipedia.org. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Powell (Accessed: 2 March 2017).

 

Andrei Tarkovsky (2017) MUBI. Available at: https://mubi.com/cast/andrei-tarkovsky (Accessed: 2 March 2017).

 

20 Classic Ingmar Bergman Quotes about Storytelling | Industrial Scripts® (2017) Industrial Scripts®, Screenwriting and Screenplay Consultants. Available at: https://screenplayscripts.com/ingmar-bergman-quotes/ (Accessed: 2 March 2017).

 

 

Week 3: TOPIC SOUND

2017 in film. Silence review 4/5

 

Ok the first film i see in cinemas this year is a late one because i saw this one 2 weeks ago and haven’t bothered to analyse it and it’s a film made by arguably my favorite film director which is none other than the legendary Martin Scorsese. Here he goes art house making a passion of his since 1990, the sort likely to found in the criterion collection. Miles away of anything he is usually known for including Hugo, there is no loud brash rock’roll intrusive gimmie shelter song playing in display while the camera zooms and swings and dazzles in an exhilarating format, no Dicaprio or Deniro. and the editing is a hell of a lot more slower even if it is Thelma Schoonmaker 5 the greatest editor alive at the moment) doing the cutting, it dosen’t feel Scorsese at all. The film is indeed a genre that Marty has explored before with The Last Temptation of Christ and Kundun but even those films had noise and an ounce of radical brashness in his more known work like Goodfellas and Casino. 2 Christian Portuguese Missionaries that is Spider Man and Kylo Ren head to Japan in order to find their mentor priest played by Oskar Schindler or in blockbuster standards Qui gon Jinn. From this point the film echoes the works of Kurosawa and Ozu as the 2 priests begin to discover a world of fear and torment as the religion they believe in and a handful of poor old Japanese bees will be tested to extreme lengths to see how much they believe in god, this means crucifixion, decapitation and psychological torture and it’s cold unsentimental and brutal and occasionally powerful to watch, hell there is a Japanese Judas laying about. Now like i said with soundtrack, there is not one single song in this movie, not one. Instead the soundtrack is the sound of nature and waves and wind being blown. Scorsese himself being raised in New York having to go to church a couple of days a week and was going to become a priest instead at some point earlier in his career and you can tell why here, the level of detail, the film’s tone and outstanding execution could have only been made by a master with a passion in his brain and a skill unlike any other. It’s without a question not his most accessible film to date, at 2 hrs and 41 minutes long about the meaning of christ, faith, heaven, hell, Buddhism and so forth, this is no Wolfie Wall Street and the pacing is much more slower but it’s also Scorsese’s best looking film in ages. It’s a test of patience for a conventional audience but for Art house conveniences it’s grade A.

 

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2017 in film. Silence review 4/5

Transformation Project.

The Woman in Purple

As tasked by our tutors, I am going to make a short film entitled Transformation. the reason why it’s called Transformation because I must pick a genre and transform it into something else. So I will make a Film Noir and turn it into a comedy.

It will be in the vain of Shane Black’s films ( ex Lethal Weapon, The Nice Guys, Kiss Kiss Bang Bang etc…) and the films of Kevin Smith inclulinding Clerks.

But the dialogue will be uncompromisingly gritty and offensive and excessive to a sensitive audience, it would be in the same vain as Irvine Welsh’s Filth and even The Wolf of Wall Street depicting a despicable world filled with despicable characters including the protagonists of the film.

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Origins of the project.

Well I wanted to make a sequel surrounding the FMP I made almost a year ago entitled Noir FMP.

This time round I wanted to expand the premise so by doing so I needed more than 1 actor, An authentic script and a location to shoot.

the-woman-in-purple ( script )

The plot of the project focuses on Private investigator Max Railroy hired by his chief boss detective Lucas Falco to investigate the murders of 4 people and a disappearance of an individual. It turns out one of the murdered victims is a Woman Max once knew. Max then takes the case and heads to Brighton.

  • Shooting on Location

I wanted to originally shoot this project in Dover with Max Railroy being played by myself and Lucas Falco played by Stephen Coyne, a fellow student who I used to be in the same class with in my first year in Canterbury College.

However Stephen’s new job Is a hotel manager and works continiously guarding the hotel. I thought at first this could be a great idea to shoot in that particular location within a couple of days by building the set and making the hotel look like a police department however by the time we were given carte blanche to shoot the project The hotel was already taken by other customers meaning that couldn’t shoot on location plus whilst expanding the script from 6 minutes to 14 minutes long new characters were in development.

But the people who played the other characters couldn’t be available from travelling to Canterbury via Dover.

So instead with 7 people willing to help me make the project in the location of Canterbury, instead I made a simple choice and decided to use the flat that I use and shoot in that location instead.

  • Character development

Max Railroy

Max Railroy is a  stereotypical noir private detective, scruffy, cynical, sarcastic and deceivingly self condescending. He is heavily influenced by the anti-heroes of the Noir ( neo-noir) world in the likes of Max Payne, Doc Sportello, Bigby Wolf, Philip Marlowe, Harry Angel, Deckard, The characters played by Robert Mitchum, Humphrey Bogart and created by James Ellroy.  He is the main character of the Transformation project. Played by myself.

Lucas Falco

Lucas Falco is Max’s boss detective, Max and Lucas have an up and down history that drove Max to leave his work of duty with Lucas until one night Max gets a call from Lucas to meet him.

Originally Lucas was meant to be played by Stephen Coyne but due to inconveniences he was replaced by George Holmes. Lucas Falco is a calm more delecate detective than Max.

Albert Schlaffen.

Originally in the script it was meant to feature more than 2 characters aside from Max and Lucas. Especially more side characters who are foreign. But My German roommate Julian Angermann offered to help make the short film so I created more characters thus developing the script with side characters. I also thought It would be a good idea to include 3 characters in the sequence involving the main case. and since I had to transform one genre into another from Film noir to black comedy. Me and my roommates made a joke of a Robin that continuously flies around my flat and we called It Muhammed, So I decided to make a mini side story of Albert’s dead pet named Muhammed.

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Jimmy Heat

Michael Coggins plays the role of Jimmy Heat. he is yet another cop with issues and has a gigantic nose i thought be funny to put as the comedy aspect in which was ok about. Michael reminded me of Sean Penn from U turn which gave this sort of edge to his performance but Michael wanted to gain confidence and by doing so decided to drink a couple of glasses of whiskey in order to deliver a suitable performance in the short film. I wanted to put gel in his hair and make wear a black buttoned up shirt to look classy for the world of film noir.

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Alex Jones

Mitchell Edward Dyer plays Alex Jones. Mitch another roommate of mine who into rockn’roll and heavy metal. Because of Mitch’s appearance i wanted to look cool yet scruffy in the same time. Mitch to write his own character down he wanted his character Alex to be a bruised and battered punk rock cop who has lost his wife and kids after an investigation gone catastrophically wrong. And in the first couple of minutes of the clip we see him snorting cocaine ( which was sugar that he actually) and drinking alcohol. His character is similar to the drug fuelled cops from the likes of Harvey Keitel, Nicolas Cage and James Mcavoy.

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Soundtrack of the film.

Because it was a film noir turned comedy the soundtrack needed a cool jazzy vibe but also it had to sound intense due to the style and plot of Noir so I research all sorts of genres in music. That includes dance music, rap music, Exotic music, scores , heavy metal, country music , jazz etc.. Anything that could match the scenes and mood of the film.

I chose sisters of mercy dominion for the opening sequence of the film because the first couple of minutes of the song featured  cool jazz music that felt dreamy playing before the rock starts to hit.

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Other songs feature more rock this time from the 50’s in American culture. The first couple of choices I made to pick the second song for the soundtrack of the film which is the sequence when Max Railroy heads into the living room to meet his co working cops. Because these characters are rough and heavy drinking cokeheads. The style needed a rock n roll cool edge to the feel and the song had to play in the background. So by doing so I searched different rock songs from other generations and I came across the way I walk by Robert Gordon which was also featured in the film Natural Born Killers.

Finally the soundtrack I wanted to use was for the end credits because I believe that songs in the end credits for a movie gives a great motivational boost and must match the movie.

By doing so since it was a story about a woman from a scruffy detective’s past I chose a more modern song called Ex’s and Oh’s by Elle King to end the credits.

Character influence part 2

In the main story of the film is given a source of information by his boss detective about multiple murders that occurred and one suspect that has gone missing.  One of the murdered victims as explained by Lucas Falco is a woman Max Railroy once knew from the past named Esmeralda Plainwright.

Esmeralda Plainwright

Esmeralda Plainwright like all great Femme Fatales in Noir’s is heavily inspired by Rita Hayworth from the film Gilda and as a matter a fact i used a clip of Gilda in a shot for a background as ironic significance. With Glenn Ford inspiring Max Railroy. Esmeralda was Max Railroy’s ex girlfriend and they had a terrible break up until the day Max finds out she has been murdered. The influence of Esmeralda is also inspired by the likes of Jessica Rabbit, Catwoman, Poison Ivy, Rita hayworth from The Lady from Shanghai and Bridget Gregory from The Last Seduction.

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Other murdered victims in the case within the story include…..

Matthew Wittington.

As said in the film Matthew Wittington is a retired Rockstar from a band called Skittles on Pluto after dealing with illegal issues with drugs and alcohol, then went into rehab and came out a writer for a company vertigo. He met Esmeralda and together along with other friends head to a cottage where they have been mysteriously and brutally murdered. Matthew Wittington’s character is a source of inspiration from Mick Jagger’s story of the Mars bar in the 1967.  Matthew Wittington is also inspired by writer Neil Gaiman and a character called Spider Jerusalem from Transmetropolitan.

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Torque Menandez

Torque Menandez is a Mexican character and friends of Matthew Wittington he and a woman named Tit Vaincalson fall for each other at the cottage. Until they are mysteriously murdered. The Reason why Torque is Mexican even though it wasn’t mentioned in the film, Was because there is a character in a the film Punch Drunk Love starring Adam Sandler and Directed by Paul Thomas Anderson called Lance played by Luis Guzman and for some reason there was something interesting about that character which is inspired the character of Torque Menandez.

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Tit Vaincalson.

Well since this was a black comedy I wanted every character’s name to be larger than life clichés of action films. However Tit Vaincalson is inspiration from Divine in the films of John Waters.  And from my own experiences working in Steinbeck every Tuesday night it’s queer night and the wild craziness that happens those nights.

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Murders at the location of Somerset.

Influenced by the horror slasher genre set in Cabin in Woods like Evil Dead, the Cabin in the Woods, Cabin Fever and Until Dawn was one of the ideas I used to tell the story of the murders at somerset, that and The Manson Murders in 1969.

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The reason why I picked Somerset as a location was because at first I actually wanted to find a location near the town that was in the British TV series Broad church. However last year out of personal experiences I went out with some friends to indeed a cottage located in Somerset. That name and location was the only thing that was stuck with my mind on what location I would pick for indeed a cottage, plus Somerset is in the country side of England and features many forest that you can easily get lost in which is perfect for a horror film.

Storyboards.

 

 

The Process of Editing

Shooting the Woman in Purple was the longest process I have ever worked on, it took 7 nights in a row to film with a Canon 700D, 2 batteries, 1 charger , 1 charger for the microphone, 1 tripod, 1 microphone and a boom pole.

Editing was extremely fun and addicting but also incredibly frustrating. Editing also took a week to work on with Avid Media Composer

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  • 1 Using black and white

Sound capturing.

Shooting with Canon 700D.

References:

(2), Walk, T. and Cruise, S. (2017) Robert Gordon (2) – The Way I Walk, Discogs. Available at: https://www.discogs.com/Robert-Gordon-The-Way-I-Walk/release/1818037 (Accessed: 11 January 2017).

Elle King – Ex’s & Oh’s (2017) Radio Wave. Available at: http://www.wave965.com/total-access/upfront/elle-king-exs-and-ohs/ (Accessed: 11 January 2017).

Mick Jagger Marianne Faithful mars bar | 50 Licks (2017) 50licks.wordpress.com. Available at: https://50licks.wordpress.com/tag/mick-jagger-marianne-faithful-mars-bar/ (Accessed: 12 January 2017).

Transmetropolitan, V., Ellis, W., Robertston, D. and Ennis, G. (2017) Transmetropolitan, Vol. 1 (Transmetropolitan, #1), Goodreads. Available at: http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/22416.Transmetropolitan_Vol_1 (Accessed: 12 January 2017).

Diaz, E. (2017) Humble Bundle Announces Rare Neil Gaiman Bundle | Nerdist, Nerdist. Available at: http://nerdist.com/humble-bundle-announces-rare-neil-gaiman-bundle/ (Accessed: 12 January 2017).

Punch-Drunk Love (2017) The Criterion Collection. Available at: https://www.criterion.com/films/27916-punch-drunk-love (Accessed: 12 January 2017).

Withrow, A. (2017) In Character: Luis Guzmán, Andsoitbeginsfilms.com. Available at: http://www.andsoitbeginsfilms.com/2014/02/in-character-luis-guzman.html (Accessed: 12 January 2017).

Chill nightclub in Canterbury to reopen as Steinbeck and Shaw venue in St George’s Place (2017) Kent Online. Available at: http://www.kentonline.co.uk/canterbury/news/nightclubs-150k-revamp-41832/ (Accessed: 12 January 2017).

 

 

Transformation Project.

Case study 1 – Natural Born Killers

 

Case Study 1:

The programme I shall choose for this task is a movie directed by Oliver Stone called Natural Born Killers (1994) The reason why I chose this movie because the film is a satire on America’s media obsession with violence.

It is hugely entertaining and thought provokingly engrossing it stars Woody Harrelson, Juliette Lewis, Tom Sizemore, Robert Downey Jr, and Tommy Lee Jones.

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Research.

The film has a clear message on what is trying to say on people, society, America. The film was originally written by Quentin Tarantino after True Romance written by Tarantino and directed by the late Tony Scott. In the film the main character Clarence played by Christian Slater writes a fictional script to his girlfriend called Natural Born Killers. Tarantino wanted to direct himself this road crime movie after True Romance himself but was short on ca$h so he sells the script to 2 rookie Hollywood producers for money. Then he gets lucky and directs Reservoir dogs, the film became a big success with Tarantino earning lot’s money. so Quentin Tarantino wanted to buy his Natural Born Killers script back  from the people he sold it too Jane Hamsher and Don Murphy. However they refused and the script was already brought from the Warner Brother executives. Enter Oliver Stone, political filmmaker and 2 time Academy award winner for best director for Platoon and Born on the 4th of July. Oliver Stone had just made a Vietnam war movie entitled Heaven and Earth (1993) he was looking for a more straightforward project to make at first Oliver Stone was willing to make the movie into an action film  starring Arnold Schwarzenegger. Because he wanted to make something far more different than his other movies.

Society:

However real life intervened it was the midst of the late 80’s and early 90’s. There was the rise of hip hop with N.W.A form of expressionism over the police racist violence with black people. There were the relentless crimes in South Central Los Angeles. There was the murders of serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer during the 70’s until the 90’s, there were the killings of Richard Ramirez a.k.a the Night Stalker there was Aileen Wuornos who murdered seven men during 1989 and 1990, There was the murders of Lyle and Erik Menendez , There was the Rodney king police brutality that led to the infamous L.A. riots of 1992, and of course there was the People vs O.J. Simpson.

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Using all these sources, Oliver Stone took influence of providing the media’s market of violence and suffering for the good ratings disguised as a black comedy road crime thriller movie and so Stone decided to rewrite the screenplay.

With most of Tarantino’s dialogue still remaining the vision and visual style was something completely different.

As for the cast of the film Stone needed an Actor known for playing more or less psychotic characters such as Michael Madsen in Reservoir Dogs. However WB needed an actor much more less intimidating to make the character of Mickey arguable even more disturbing. As it turns out Woody Harrelson coming straight out of a TV series entitled Cheers, his own father was a professional hitman and was sentenced for life for murder which intrigued Stone, Juliette Lewis who plays Mallory went through an Audition, previously the role was offered to singer Tori Amos whom had a similar background history to Mallory which included sexual abuse and domestic violence. According to Tori’s autobiography she said that Oliver brought her coffee and offered her the role on the condition that whenever Mallory kills somebody she would have to sing Me and a Gun, Amos slapped Oliver around the face and left. So Lewis provides an audition and by convincing Stone she grabbed his genitals and said quote on quote, ”If you think that any of these other actresses could physically kill you, then hire them”.

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By this point the script of Natural Born Killers was starting to build intrigued, Tim Roth and Steve Buscemi refused roles as that Tarantino ( angry over the fact he couldn’t direct) would never cast them again if they accepted. In the other casting scenario’s Robert Downey Jr was cast as TV  journalist Wayne Gale ( Downey Jr. only agreed to play the part if he can pull off an Australian accent, this was before his Iron Man era and his drug habit.)Tom Sizemore was cast as Detective Scagnetti and Tommy Lee Jones was cast as Warden McClusky ( only if he could base his performance of Moliere’s play Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme.)

The Making of Natural Born Killers:

  • During the making of the film near the prison riot sequences towards the end of the movie, actual prison inmates convicted for murdering their wives and kids with weapons were cast as extras in the movie

 

  • According to the sources Oliver Stone’s vision of the film was that the film must be psychedelically as wild as possible, He got his entire cast and crew stoned on LSD and psychedelic mushrooms as a form of experiment to film the surreal and chaotic sequences . Including the cinematographer of the film Robert Richardson who shot Oliver Stone’s previous efforts JFK and Born on the 4th of July.  Whom originally severely declined the project after his wife almost died due to childbirth.

 

  • As for the soundtrack for the film, Stone hired Trent Reznor from Nine inch Nails. Whom watched the film over 50 times to get a vibe and a atmosphere in order to know exactly what kind of sound he needed for nearly every single sequences in the movie.

The Controversy of Natural Born Killers.

Natural Born Killers is considered the 8th most controversial film of all time, it stands somewhere between A Clockwork Orange and Irreversible according to the Newsweek magazine.

  • One of the main controversies of the movie was a simple cuddly bear Coca-Cola commercial that intervened during scenes involving an extensive amount of brutal violence as a form of satirical expression saying all is safe. Then immediate after the ad shots of decapitation and bloody corpses will be floating around the scenes. This really upsetted the Coca-Cola board of directors who would after refuse to use it’s brand of commercials in movies ever again.

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  • The film also received irrelevant charges, Oliver Stone was accused of worshipping violence and it was also close to being banned from cinemas in the U.K. until it was released in February of 1995.

 

  • The most disturbing  aspect after the film was released was the  multiple crimes that were committed which were copycats of the movie.

1 ) There was the shooting of William Savage and Patsy Byers

Once upon a time in March 1995 James Darras and his girlfriend Sarah Edmondson spent one night in a cabin watching Natural Born Killers. 2 days later on March 7th Darras shot cotton manager twice in the head with a 38 calibre  revolver resulting in murder. Later Darras and Edmonson shot local cashier Patsy Byers, however she survived the attack.  The pair were arrested in July 95 after Byers took legal actions. And Oliver Stone was filed a lawsuit that was amended by Byers herself, however the suit was dismissed.

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2) The Richardson Family murders

On April 2005, 23 year old Jeremy Steinke and his 12 year old girlfriend murdered her parents including her 8 year old brother, the following day Steinke  was arrested and was married to her. In July 2007 it was discovered that Jeremy watched Natural Born Killers the night before the murders. He even said quote on quote that he was going to Natural Born Killer on the parents.

 

3)  The Dallas Texas decapitation

In September 1994 a 14 year old kid decapitated his 13 year old classmate after his arrest and questioning he said because he wanted to be famous like Mickey and Mallory from Natural Born Killers.

4) The Manhunt of Nathan Martinez

A month after the Texas decapitation, in October a 17 year old named Nathan Martinez shot and killed his stepmother and half sister then went on the run around Bluffdale, Utah. Once arrested Martinez claimed to have seen the film over 10 times and shaved his head and was wearing round sunglasses to gain a resemblance of Mickey from Natural Born Killers.

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5) The Infamous Columbine High School massacre.

A crime so infamous, Gus Van Sant made a movie based on the material entitled Elephant. In April 1999 in Columbine Colorado Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed 12 students then committed suicide. It was later confirmed that the pair were huge fans of NBK, In the journals of Eric Harris he wrote that the morning of April 20th was the holy morning of NBK, and that he was stuck in humanity and that NBK was a way to break free.

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6) The Heath High School shooting

2 years before Columbine on December 1997, 14 year old Michael Carneal shot and killed 3 of his classmates and wounded five others, then surrended to the principal. After his arrest, Lawyer Jack Thompson filed a lawsuit upon Warner Bros because as it was revealed Michael loved the video games of Doom, ortal Kombat, the 1995 film The Basketball Diaries starring Leonardo Dicaprio and Mark Wahlberg and of course NBK.

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7) The Milwaukee strangling.

On July 19th 2008, Eric Tavulares and his girlfriend Lauren Aljubouri were watching NBK, Later she stopped the film and went to bed. Later when Eric went to bed they started talking. Then Eric randomly started strangling Lauren until her death. Once arrested it was revealed that he wanted to perform a similar scenario from a scene of NBK in which he saw at least 20 times.

 

Harvard referencing :

Natural Born Killers (2016) Pinterest. Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/explore/natural-born-killers/ (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Jeffrey Dahmer – Color (2016) The-real-ncomics.deviantart.com. Available at: http://the-real-ncomics.deviantart.com/art/Jeffrey-Dahmer-Color-115155389 (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

DeviantArt: More Like Groovy by The-Real-NComics (2016) Deviantart.com. Available at: http://www.deviantart.com/morelikethis/545131277 (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Aileen (2016) Ikaruuu.deviantart.com. Available at: http://ikaruuu.deviantart.com/art/Aileen-295458552 (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Blanco, J. (2016) Lyle & Erik Menendez | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers, Murderpedia.org. Available at: http://murderpedia.org/male.M/m/menendez-brothers.htm (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

The L.A. Riots: 15 Years After Rodney King – TIME (2016) TIME.com. Available at: http://content.time.com/time/specials/2007/la_riot/article/0,28804,1614117_1614084_1614831,00.html (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Militant Angeleno (2016) Angeleno72.rssing.com. Available at: http://angeleno72.rssing.com/chan-11873863/all_p5.html (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Prosecutor: If O.J. trial held today, it’d probably be hung jury (2016) MSNBC. Available at: http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/prosecutor-if-oj-trial-held-today-itd-probably-be-hung-jury (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Charles Harrelson (2016) En.wikipedia.org. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Harrelson (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Juliette Lewis (2016) Pinterest. Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/lisaliz93/juliette-lewis/ (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Tori Amos – More information (2016) Xn—–7kcbafccmcmaebg5acinx8cmelm0atdp6ag1b.xn--p1ai. Available at: http://xn—–7kcbafccmcmaebg5acinx8cmelm0atdp6ag1b.xn--p1ai/tori-amos.php (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Company, O., Main, O., Journey, A., Mission, V., System, T., Overview, W., Rights, H., Foundation, T., Leaders, C., Rankings, A., History, C., Reports, C., Report, S., Map, C., (U.S.), C., Main, I., Review, 2., Information, I., Information, I., Events, I., Information, S., Governance, C., Filings, I., Center, P., Main, P., Releases, P., Statements, C., Articles, C., Library, A., Library, I., Contacts, P., Main, C., Are, W., Company?, W., Search, C., Areas, C., People, M., Us, C., Main, C., Page, F., Replenishment, W., Back, G., Recipes, F., Bears, Journey, Holidays, Iconography, Colorado, Africa, Milestone, Bears, Coca-Cola, Christmas, ARCHIVES, S., Legacy, &., Formula, C., FIZZ, T., Bottles, W., Ramadan, L., Recipe, C., Alone, R., Tasted, T., Recipe, C., Nationwide, C., Share a Coke 2.0: The Hit Campaign is Back, a., Coke, T., Ramadan, L., Alone, R. and World, R. (2016) First Coca-Cola Polar Bear Commercial Turns 20, The Coca-Cola Company. Available at: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/coca-cola-polar-bears-turn-20 (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Patsy Ann Guthrie Byers (1959 – 1997) – Find A Grave Memorial (2016) Findagrave.com. Available at: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=55409499 (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Richardson Family Murders (2016) Ortonscrime.blogspot.co.uk. Available at: http://ortonscrime.blogspot.co.uk/2014/01/richardson-family-murders.html (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

sleep’, ‘. (2016) ‘I just wanted him to go to sleep’, Mascaramurder.blogspot.co.uk. Available at: http://mascaramurder.blogspot.co.uk/2012/03/i-just-wanted-him-to-go-to-sleep.html (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Blindsided by NATURAL BORN KILLERS – Review (2016) Back to the Viewer. Available at: https://backtotheviewer.wordpress.com/2015/02/20/natural-born-killers/ (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Columbine High School massacre (2016) En.wikipedia.org. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbine_High_School_massacre (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Press, A. (2016) Victims of the shooting at Columbine High School, chicagotribune.com. Available at: http://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/sns-denver042399victims.jpg-photo.html (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Criminals & Outlaws (2016) Pinterest. Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/375909900116872783/ (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Doom (1993 video game) (2016) En.wikipedia.org. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doom_(1993_video_game) (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

The Basketball Diaries Movie Poster (#1 of 2) (2016) Impawards.com. Available at: http://www.impawards.com/1995/basketball_diaries.html (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

Growing Up 80’s & 90’s (South Africa) (2016) Pinterest. Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/391391023837152607/ (Accessed: 30 November 2016).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case study 1 – Natural Born Killers